Four oral motor disorders: bruxism, dystonia, dyskinesia and drug-induced dystonic extrapyramidal reactions.
Clark GT, Ram S.
Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine Center, University of Southern California School of Dentistry, 925 West 34th Street, Room B-14, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0641, USA. email@example.com
This article reviews four of the involuntary hyperkinetic motor disorders that affect the orofacial region: bruxism, orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, and medication-induced extrapyramidal syndrome-dystonic reactions. It discusses and contrasts the clinical features and management strategies for spontaneous, primary, and drug-induced motor disorders in the orofacial region. The article provides a list of medications that have been reported to cause drug-related extrapyramidal motor activity, and discusses briefly the genetic and traumatic events that are associated with spontaneous dystonia. Finally, it presents an approach for management of the orofacial motor disorders. The contraindications, side effects, and usual approach for medications and injections are covered. An overview of the indications, contraindications, and complications of using botulinum toxin as a therapeutic modality is discussed briefly.
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