Role Serotonin in Feeding Problems

Role Serotonin in Feeding Problems

There is good evidence that the experimental manipulation of serotonin causes changes in feeding behavior and that adjustments in feeding and in the nutritional supply bring about responses in the level or activity of serotonin. These data suggest that 5-HT systems in the body mediate nutritional input and the drive to feed. In addition, it is known that serotonin is a phylogenetically primitive neurotransmitter, which may therefore occupy a central role in the relationship between food and brain organization. A framework can be developed by considering the interrelationships among feeding processes (operations of the satiety cascade), peripheral physiological mechanisms, and brain serotonin systems. Two key issues are how nutritional information is transcribed onto brain 5-HT systems and the nature of this information. The neuroanatomical distribution of 5-HT neurons occupy an appropriate position in which to coordinate peripheral physiological and metabolic information, environmental features, and the behavioral response.

Serotonin (5-HT) modulates synaptic efficacy in the nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, many behaviors are regulated by 5-HT levels, which are in turn regulated by the presence or absence of food. Here, we show that both food and 5-HT signaling modulate chemosensory avoidance response of octanol in C. elegans, and that this modulation is both rapid and reversible. Sensitivity to octanol is decreased when animals are off food or when 5-HT levels are decreased; conversely, sensitivity is increased when animals are on food or have increased 5-HT signaling. Laser microsurgery and behavioral experiments reveal that sensory input from different subsets of octanol-sensing neurons is selectively used, depending on stimulus strength, feeding status, and 5-HT levels. 5-HT directly targets at least one pair of sensory neurons, and 5-HT signaling requires the Gα protein GPA-11. Glutamatergic signaling is required for response to octanol, and the GLR-1 glutamate receptor plays an important role in behavioral response off food but not on food. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT modulation of neuronal activity via G protein signaling underlies behavioral plasticity by rapidly altering the functional circuitry of a chemosensory circuit.

Functional roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the feeding behavior of the medicinal leech,Hirudo medicinalis. Bathing intact leeches in serotonin (3×10−5 mol/l, 20 min) significantly alters three components of their feeding behavior. Leeches exposed to serotonin initiate swimming toward a vibrating point with a shorter latency, bite a warm surface more frequently, and ingest more blood than control animals.

Thermal stimulation of the prostomium evokes pharyngeal peristalsis, jaw movements and an obvious salivation by semidissected preparations. The application of serotonin (10−8 to 10−6 mol/l) directly activates and increases the rates of pharyngeal peristalsis and salivary secretion in these preparations. Serotonin also produces jaw movements and a constriction of the crop when centrally applied.

Vibrational stimuli, which evoke the swimming phase of feeding behavior, synaptically excite Retzius cells within segmental ganglia. Thermal stimuli, which evoke the biting phase, synaptically excite 5-HT-containing neurons within the subesophageal ganglia. Intracellular stimulation of identified 5-HT-containing neurons produces pharyngeal peristalsis reliably and enhances salivation.

Serotonin

Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals and humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

Approximately 90% of the human body’s total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the alimentary canal (gut), where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.

Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. Serotonin also is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing.

Serotonin is mainly metabolized to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde. This is followed by oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by the kidneys. One type of tumor, called carcinoid, sometimes secretes large amounts of serotonin into the blood, which causes various forms of the carcinoid syndrome of flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems. Because of serotonin’s growth-promoting effect on cardiac myocytes, persons with serotonin-secreting carcinoid may suffer a right heart (tricuspid) valve disease syndrome, caused by proliferation of myocytes onto the valve. In addition to animals, serotonin is found in fungi and plants. Serotonin’s presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side effect of serotonin injection. Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebae, and its effect on the gut causes diarrhea. Its widespread presence in many seeds and fruits may serve to stimulate the digestive tract into expelling the seeds.

Pharmacological lesions of particular 5-HT neurons abolishes feeding behavior. However, a brief exposure to exogenous 5-HT restores biting behavior. Well-fed leeches do not normally bite, but a brief bath in 5-HT will evoke biting behavior by them as well.Serotonin is localized to a limited population of identifiable neurons in the C.N.S., and plays a pivotal and mandatory role in organizing the feeding behavior of the medicinal leech.

Both serotonergic dysfunction and glucocorticoid hypersecretion are implicated in affective and eating disorders. The adverse effects of serotonergic (5-HT)2C receptor activation on mood and food intake, the antidepressant efficacy of 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, and the hyperphagia observed in 5-HT2Creceptor knockout mice all suggest a key role for increased 5-HT2C receptor-mediated neurotransmission. Glucocorticoids, however, downregulate 5-HT2Creceptor mRNA in the hippocampus, and it is unclear how increased 5-HT2C receptor sensitivity is achieved in the presence of elevated glucocorticoid levels in depression. Here we show a monophasic diurnal rhythm of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus that parallels time-dependent variations in 5-HT2C receptor agonist-induced behaviors in open field tests. Rats entrained to chronic food restriction show marked but intermittent corticosterone hypersecretion and maintain an unaltered 5-HT2C receptor mRNA rhythm. The 5-HT2Creceptor mRNA rhythm, however, is suppressed by even modest constant elevations of corticosterone (adrenalectomy + pellet) or with elevated corticosterone during the daytime (8 A.M.), whereas a normal rhythm exists in animals that have the same dose of corticosterone in the evening (6 P.M.). Thus, animals showing even a transient daytime corticosterone nadir exhibit normal hippocampal 5-HT2Creceptor mRNA rhythms, even in the presence of overt corticosterone hypersecretion. Chronic food restriction also abolishes the normal diurnal variation in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs and produces, unusually, both elevated corticosterone and increased GR. The mismatch between elevated glucocorticoids and maintained 5-HT2C receptor and increased GR gene expression in the hippocampus provides a new model to dissect mechanisms that may underlie affective and eating disorders.

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Pediatric Articles Dr Widodo Judarwanto (pediatrician)

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We are guilty of many errors and many faults. But our worst crime is abandoning the children, neglecting the fountain of life.
Information on this web site is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a medical or health condition. You should carefully read all product packaging. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider

Copyright © 2013, Picky Eaters and Grow Up Clinic, Information Education Network. All rights reserved

supported by

PICKY EATERS AND GROW UP CLINIC (Klinik Khusus Kesulitan Makan dan Gangguan Berat Badan)  GRoW UP CLINIC JAKARTA Yudhasmara Foundation  GRoW UP CLINIC I Jl Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Bendungan Hilir Jakarta Pusat 10210, phone (021) 5703646 – 44466102 GRoW UP CLINIC II MENTENG SQUARE Jl Matraman 30 Jakarta Pusat 10430, phone (021) 44466103 – 97730777 email : judarwanto@gmail.com narulita_md@yahoo.com http://growupclinic.com

WORKING TOGETHER SUPPORT TO THE HEALTH OF ALL BY CLINICAL, RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONS. Advancing of the future pediatric and future parenting to optimalized physical, mental and social health and well being for fetal, newborn, infant, children, adolescents and young adult
“GRoW UP CLINIC” Jakarta Focus and Interest on: *** Allergy Clinic Online *** Picky Eaters and Growup Clinic For Children, Teen and Adult (Klinik Khusus Gangguan Sulit Makan dan Gangguan Kenaikkan Berat Badan)*** Children Foot Clinic *** Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic *** Oral Motor Disorders and Speech Clinic *** Children Sleep Clinic *** Pain Management Clinic Jakarta *** Autism Clinic *** Children Behaviour Clinic *** Motoric & Sensory Processing Disorders Clinic *** NICU – Premature Follow up Clinic *** Lactation and Breastfeeding Clinic *** Swimming Spa Baby & Medicine Massage Therapy For Baby, Children and Teen ***

Professional Healthcare Provider “GRoW UP CLINIC” Dr Narulita Dewi SpKFR, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation curriculum vitae HP 085777227790 PIN BB 235CF967  Clinical – Editor in Chief : Dr Widodo Judarwanto, Pediatrician email : judarwanto@gmail.com curriculum vitae  Twitter: @WidoJudarwanto http://www.facebook.com/widodo.judarwanto Mobile Phone O8567805533 PIN BB 25AF7035
We are guilty of many errors and many faults. But our worst crime is abandoning the children, neglecting the fountain of life.
Information on this web site is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a medical or health condition. You should carefully read all product packaging. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider

Copyright © 2013, Picky Eaters and Grow Up Clinic, Information Education Network. All rights reserved

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